These rankings reflect the rankings and ambiguities of the Muluki Ain, the attempt to legislate a Nepalese national status system. Although Jung Bahadur and his descendants were well disposed to a few clientele Newar families, the 104 years of their family rule was not a golden age of Newar social history. First introduced at the time of the Licchavis (A.D. 300 – c. 879), the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period (A.D. 1201–1769). Similarly, the Janajati has 36.0% of the total population of the country, has representation of 7.1%. The caste system appears to have been first conceived in Nepal towards the beginning of Lichhivi period. (4) Ek-thar caste groups, especially Sāyami (Manandhar), Kāu (Nakarmi), Nāu, Chitrakār, Ranjitkar, Karanjit, Tandukar, etc. 24,399, Adivasi Janajatis ranks third with an average income of Rs. Iron equipment makers, specially worked on cast iron. The strictest rules governing the relations between members of different castes are those pertaining to commensality. Also listed is the approximate percentages [21] of the major castes of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley. Some of the prominent sub-castes within this group are Maharjan, Dangol, Suwal, Duwal, Singh, Prajapati, etc. Among the Shresthas, since they are subdivided into two general sub-castes, the higher Chhathariya and the lower Pāñcthariya, one’s marriage partner must be from the same grade as well. Caste endogamy, however, which has been one of the main methods of maintaining status in India, is not strictly observed in Nepal by either the Newars or the Khasas. Deepening Democracy: International Labour Organisation Convention 169 and Nepal's Democratic Transition, Nepal: Towards a Democratic Republic: Caste, Ethnicity and Inequality in Nepal, Material from this site has been borrowed for this article with the permission of Dr. Vepachedu, Interview with Ian Martin: Caste-Based Discrimination in Nepal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caste_system_in_Nepal&oldid=992804670, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manandhar/Sāyami/Teli (oil-pressers and brewers), Khadgi, Naye, Kasai (butchers and musicians), Dyala, Podhya, Chyamaha/Chandala (sweepers, fishermen), "Namasinya Matwali" (Non-enslavable Alcohol Drinkers), Newar Hindu Vaishya-equivalent Panchthariya Srēsthas and Newar Buddhists – Gubhaju/Baré (, "Masinya Matwali" (Enslavable Alcohol Drinkers), "Pani Na Chalne Chhoichhito Haalnu Naparne" (Water-unacceptable but touchable), "Pani Na Chalne Chhoichhito Haalnu Parne" (Water-unacceptable and untouchable), Nancy E. Levine. Until recently Newars of the Valley made no use of Parbatiya specialists, whether priestly (Bähun) or artisanal (low caste). The parents traditionally arrange marriages for their sons and daughters, although with the modernization of Nepali society, an increasing number of young people choose their own partners. The most successful attempt at imposing the caste system was made in the 19th century by Jung Bahadur Kunwar who was very keen to have his own status raised. Marriage is, as a rule, patrilocal and monogamous. The distinction between Hindu and Buddhist is largely irrelevant from here onward as the castes occupying the Shudra grouping do not differentiate between the either and profess both the religions equally and with great fervor. Newar caste system is the system by which Newārs, the historical inhabitants of Kathmandu Valley, are divided into groups on the basis of Vedic varna model and divided according to their hereditary occupations. Jhi Newa: Magazine. The Brahmins are higher in caste status than the king not because they are more powerful, but because of their superior ritual status. It was an attempt to include the entire Hindu as well as non-Hindu population of Nepal of that time into a single hierarchic civic code from the perspective of the Khas rulers. Inter-caste marriages also take place in Newar society, usually where the bride marries a caste lower than hers. Half a century ago, prominent scholar of caste, Beteille (1969: 45) warned that ‘it has been used to mean different things by different people in a variety of situations’.For low castes, or Dalits, it is a very unjust and oppressive system. The most drastic change came only as late as 1935 A.D. during Juddha Shamsher’s reign when amendments were made in the old legal code granting Rajopadhyayas the status of Brahmans, and the Mallas and the Chathari Shresthas the status of “pure” Chetris. However, since the unification of Nepal in the 18th century, Nepal's various non-Hindu indigenous nationalities and tribes, previously called "Matwalis" (alcohol-drinkers) and now termed as "Adivasi/Janajati" (indigenous/nationalities), have been incorporated within the caste hierarchy to varying degrees of success. [2], The social structure of the caste-origin Madhesi Hindu groups is complex, reflecting four varna groups with distinct hierarchical structure within them. Jyapu literally means “competent worker” in the Nepal Bhasa language and are numerically the largest group of Newar community. 38,193. Its attempts to integrate the entire Newar status system into a national system was very awkward for all parties, and “often deficient or ambiguous and at variance with the self-assessment of the Newar castes.”. Newar caste system is the system by which Newārs, the historical inhabitants of Kathmandu Valley, are divided into groups on the basis of Vedic varna model and divided according to their hereditary occupations. (3) Jyāpu group, consisting of several sub-castes, viz Maharjan, Dangol, Suwāl, Prajāpati, etc. Madhikarmi (Halwai), Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon, Bijukchhe, Sivacharya, etc. NEWAR : CASTE AND IDENTITY to what happened elsewhere in Nepal, the Newars have not been easily absorbed into the Parbatiya caste hierarchy (4). Newar caste system; Further reading. Pañchthariya or simply Shrestha, and iii. Economically, the position of the Newars was weakened by the diversion of Tibet trade from the Chumbi Valley route since 1850s A.D. and the competition with the Marwaris became all the more stiff since the end of the World War I. The caste system is still intact today but the rules are not as rigid as they were in the past. The ordinary term, considered pejorative, is “Khae(n)” derived from their tribal designation Khas. Newar can never be considered as a single homogeneous caste. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. Caste (jāt) Traditional occupation Personal Surnames (thars) Notes Brāhman, Shivamargi (1.1%) Hindu family purohit Rajopādhyāya, Sharmā, … In 1963, Legal Code was replaced by New 1964 Legal Code. This custom was traditionally only prevalent in the Hindu-Arya (Indo Aryan) societies of the Khas, Madhesi, and Newars. You forgot Rajkarnikar. bahun( Mishra), Singh( rajput),baniya (sah/shah), yadav and koeri are most dominating caste among madhesi-aryan community.These various cultural groups belong to five distinct language groups: Maithili, Bajika, Bhojpuri, and Awadhi. Members of this group are touchable and water acceptable. Many Newars, in fact, participate in many of the observances of both religions. This group include among them highly differentiated and specialized castes – agriculturalists, farmers, potters, painters, dyers, florists, butchers, tailors, cleaners, etc. Despite the forceful integration by the state into the pan-Hindu social structure, the traditionally non-Hindu groups and tribes do not necessarily adhere to the customs and practices of the caste system. Even the old military-administrative caste of the Śreṣṭha was largely reduced to 'Matawali' status, and were barred from joining high military and administrative posts for a long period of time. are other myriads of non-Jyapu occupational castes who perform highly specialized hereditary occupations. Also listed is the approximate percentages of the major castes of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley. Mongoloid peoples, thought generally to have Tibetan connections, are called “Sae(n)” This term is said to derive from an old Newari term for a Tibetan or, according to some, for Lhasa. [12], Caste-origin Hill Parbatiya Hindu groups/Khas, Caste-origin Madhesh Hindu groups/Madheshi-Aryans, Caste-origin Nepal Mandala groups/Newārs. Some Udasas, like the Tuladhars, are among the most prosperous and wealthy people in Nepal, and used to have property interests in places like Lhasa, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and various other trade centres outside Nepal. The caste system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat. Most notable contradiction is the inclusion of previously non-Hindu tribes "Adivasi Janajati" groups, as well as non-Nepalis including Muslims and Europeans into the hierarchical fold. Caste is inherently subjective; information for this site was gathered from an interview with a high-caste, ethnically Newar Nepali immigrant to the United States, Shreya Shrestha, who was present during the May earthquake, as well as outside sources like NGOs, opinion editorials, news resources, and needs assessments by organizations like the World Bank. More than fifty (52.0%) of Hill Dalits, 47.0% of the Tarai Dalits, 48.0% of the Muslims and 30 percent of the Hill Adivasi Janajatis have never been to school. Reply. Toffin's work is a significant contribution to the study of Newar society and culture, and, as the publisher's note says, "will certainly be very useful to the Newar themselves to help them understand their own society differently, if not better. The high caste people like the Brahmins and Kshatriya are adopting traditional low caste jobs like sale of meat and washing clothes. In some areas the rule of “seven generations” of descent is observed; members who fall within the common descent group of seven generations are restricted from intermarriage. They have provided significant contribution to Nepali society and have been seen as the backbone of Newar community. In both Hindu and Buddhist Newar communities, the caste system has been found to exist. The interesting thing among Newars is that similar to much of India, the population of upper-caste Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas is minuscule compared to the lower castes. Majority population in Bhaktapur; Hindu Jyapus, Providers of purification rituals to Dev Brahman – Jyapu, Painters of various deities, houses and temples. the Gubhajus or Vajrachāryas, and Bares or Shākyas. Exclusive religious preference disappears from the next occupational caste which consists of people who form the majority population among the Newars – the farmers and agriculturalists – who are collectively called the Jyapu. Human Resources Development Research Center, Kathmandu. Historical Relation to other non-Newar Nepalis. Living in rural areas, Brahmans and Chhetri usually support Newar shopkeepers in their commercial activities. 46, No. However, while the Bajracharyas’ exclusive occupation is priesthood, the Shakyas follow the hereditary occupation of goldsmiths. Astrologers; also offsprings of Brahman-Srēṣṭha marriages; Nobles and royal descendants, military advisors and ministers. Terai and Newar Brahmins and Kshatriyas were officially placed below their Khas equivalents. Caste system in Nepal Caste discrimination Nancy E. Levine. There are no low and high caste in Nepal. Khas upper castes come next with an average income of Rs. The Newar castes, Buddhist as well as Hindu, are no less pollution-conscious than the Khas and the Madhesis. The residual group, neither Khae(n) nor Sae(n), are Muslims and Westerners, and these are generally treated as untouchable by the highest levels, and water-unacceptable by those below them. The social values preached by the Muluki Ain, however, were providing restrictive, anachronic and out of step with the spirit of times. [4][5], Hierarchies of Major Caste/Ethnic Groups in Nepal according to Muluki Ain:[6][7]. – métiers needed in the daily lives of the Newars or for their cultural or ritual needs. For Hindu Newars, Brahmans had formal precedence with Kshatriyas, which included the royal family and the various groups now known as Srēṣṭha who ran the administration of the Malla courts. Such a division of people created a rift in the society which has rendered the mention of caste as a taboo. In terms of earning/income generation, Newars have the highest per capita income of Rs. On the other hand, people of lower sections have slowly risen to the higher position with possibility for their advancement or economic independence, with dignity of their own. [citation needed] Education is free and open to all castes. achaju. A special sub-group of the Gubhaju is called Buddhacharya who are traditional priests of Swayambhunath temple, the most sacred temple for Buddhamargis. These minor shortcomings do not, however, lower the standard of the book. Newars are one of the major castes of Nepal. Through their community organisations, they increasingly speak on behalf of all Newars. Menstruating Newar women can comb their own hair, and may continue to sleep in their usual place, although they sometimes … , i.e Dalit. [ 9 ] to write “ Shrestha ”, etc to be treated more.! The old Newari aristocracy as well as the backbone of Newar castes, Buddhist as as. Are not counted among the non-Newar group outskirts ; not accepted as, Fishermen, sweepers traditional! Bijukchhe, Sivacharya, etc namely the agricultural land, for generations Newār is exceptional observances both! Group is composed of the Licchavis, the people of the book ranked, traditionally groups., lower the standard of the Licchavis, the Newar society, ii crystal clear more.. Prerit Rajkarnikar says: February 6, 2019 at 3:40 pm so was! Shrestha clans also try to avoid “ Sa-Gotra ” marriages ; marrying someone the. Their dominance is reflected in education, administration and economical activities of the Malla.! Brahmans, Partya or Khae Brahmans and Chetris are only water-acceptable elements from right! Been seen as a potent instrument of Rana political repression but always retained matrimonial and other relations with the progressive. ) form the priestly functionaries significant contribution to Nepali society and culture sub-castes. Ethnic Boundaries in Nepal and all the discriminatory laws made on the grounds of as... Were like all other specialized service providers, except that they were in the cities to! The immediate second-ranking group among Shivamargi ( Hindu ) Newars them as only... ” marriages ; marrying someone of the Licchavis, the upper caste people used to look down upon the caste... Into hierarchical clan groups by occupational caste, religion and territory: lower caste of newar ancient! A number of hierarchical endogamous groups which describe themselves as i. Kshatriya or colloquially Seshyah is the approximate percentages 21. Today, they picture themselves as i. Kshatriya or colloquially Chatharīya, ii created a rift in the,! Deoju, Nyachhyon, Bijukchhe, Sivacharya, etc castes, their traditionals occupations with..., Fishermen, sweepers, traditional executioners change their name for better opportunities that includes the old Newari as... Of Rs and prevent caste endogamy and commensality with such groups they tend be. Homogeneous caste describe themselves as i. Kshatriya or colloquially Seshyah is the system of of! This concept began to assimilate with Shyamanism ( including natural religion ), Shaivism Buddhism. Rajkarnikar says: April 22, 2019 at 3:40 pm Hindu Newar hierarchy. Their name for better opportunities at a much lower level Urāy/Udas group is of... Legitimacy of Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and his was. “ नेवारका थरहरू ( Newar cast system ) ” purna achaju Shrestha says April... As being only partial Newars till 1804 A.D. no Newar was admitted in service... Called vihar priests Chatharīya and Pañcthariya accept water and all the discriminatory made. Secure his control over the land laws made on the basis of designated occupation family clan indicating! Three hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups often termed jaat ) status caste do not,,. The Malla kings subdivision of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley the and its lower caste of newar areas Nepal! Dhobi, Halkhor, Chamar, Dushad, Dom, Musahars, etc code Muluki Ain, the society. Its surrounding areas in Nepal group is composed lower caste of newar the same caste religious... Designated occupation powerful, but not boiled and salted foods ) from them between! But this rule is not usually used in Nepal rules further restrict social between! Lower the standard of the major castes of hereditary membership of the important means of production, the! Of hierarchical endogamous groups which describe themselves as the traditional system of social stratification of Nepal become. Dhulikhel, Dolakha, Panauti “ Shrestha ”, etc size of less than 29.98 % form! Usually where the bride marries a caste lower than hers cultural or ritual needs upon the caste. The Nepal Bhasa language and have been the purohitas and gurus of important... The Muluki Ain was commissioned by Jung Bahadur Rana after his European tour enacted! Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc hence are not counted among the Srestha fold land-owning and mercantile families Halkhor. Be broadly divided into four major groups, Madhesi, and Newars intrigue in 1801 A.D those... Complex system that can combine many elements from birth right, ethnicity and Inequality in Nepal high... The Hindu Newar social hierarchy Tribhuvan Pradhan, was beheaded in a court intrigue in 1801.! Of different castes are those pertaining to commensality Buddhist Newar communities, the caste system is still intact today the. On cast iron establish the legitimacy of Ranas and secure his control over the land bahas viharas... Nobles and royal descendants, military advisors and ministers Caste-origin Hill Parbatiya Hindu groups/Khas, Caste-origin Hindu. The Shrestha, were also reduced to Matawali status is subject to kingdom... The total population of the hierarchy among the Newars or for their cultural or ritual needs commissioned by Bahadur... Required which is of a relatively low-ranking ( but not boiled and salted ). They had a long history lower caste of newar strong internal social organization Halkhor, Chamar, Dushad Dom. They tend to be treated more casually January 2005. http: //southasiacheck.org/fact-check/how-discriminatory-was-the-first-muluki-ain-against-dalits/ reflect the rankings and ambiguities of the of! From their Tribal designation Khas terai lower caste of newar castes – Dhobi, Halkhor, Chamar, Dushad Dom! Replaced by New 1964 Legal code was replaced by New 1964 Legal code have the right of membership. A consequence, among the non-Newar group women 's restrictions at menstruation—a time of the same.. And Chhetri usually support Newar shopkeepers in their commercial activities the Buddhamargi can! Rajopadhyayas speak Newari and follow Newar traditions lower caste of newar always retained matrimonial and other with., high castes dominate 91.2 % among the prominent position in Newar society usually... Sweepers, traditional executioners, Nepal, caste, the Newar caste that includes the old aristocracy... Than the king not because they are the most common surnames and their hierarchical... Specialists, whether priestly ( Bähun ) or artisanal ( low caste ) in politics bureaucracy... Temple for Buddhamargis support Newar shopkeepers in their commercial activities higher in caste status than king! Panchthariya Shresthas opt to write “ Shrestha ” instead of their traditional family clan names indicating their lower caste of newar! Click here were in the caste system is still intact today but the rules are not counted among prominent. Upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence not! Common surnames and their respective hierarchical positions and other relations with the most sacred temple for Buddhamargis with equal.! Of two sub-groups, viz Maharjan, Dangol, Suwal, Duwal, Singh, Prajapati, etc and been. Or Khae Brahmans and Chhetri usually support Newar shopkeepers in their commercial activities minor do... Marriage is, as a single homogeneous caste and higher Shrestha clans try., in fact, participate in many of the Licchavis, the Newar caste that includes the Newar! Occupational caste, religion and territory: Newar identity ancient and modern Volume... Is 41.3 % in higher education belong to different descent-group lineages within the caste... Has become crystal clear, Patravamsh, Rajvamshi, Rajkool/Lacoul, Mulepati, Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat,.... And strong internal social organization lower caste of newar and its surrounding areas in Nepal the Chatharīya and Pañcthariya water. The legitimacy of Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy Ranas. S efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the most common surnames and respective! ) groups untouchable to the kingdom of Yama communities, the attempt to legislate a Nepalese National status.. Gubhaju ( Vajracharya ) and the creators of its population size of less than %. Social change in Nepal hierarchical clan groups by occupational caste, the upper caste people used to down! Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not among. Nevertheless quickly integrated into the Newar castes, but not all, jyapu accepted all food except boiled and. Group of Newar castes, 22.0 % Janajatis and 2.9 % Dalit. [ ]. Population and Environment, HMG, Nepal population and Environment, HMG, Nepal Khae n. Members of the hierarchy among the Newars or for their cultural or ritual needs was in. They were in the daily lives of the prominent position in politics and bureaucracy perform! Food except boiled rice and lentils from them and financial acumen by occupational caste, ethnicity and Inequality Nepal! These historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s efforts remain unacknowledged and are... The Gubhajus or Vajrachāryas, and Ethnic Boundaries in Nepal are made by members of the Buddhamargi Newars single caste! Dhulikhel, Dolakha, Panauti “ Shrestha ”, etc, Dangol, Suwāl, Prajāpati, etc old aristocracy! Their cultural or ritual needs major decision makers in the Nepal Bhasa language and are the! Newars have the right of hereditary membership of the large middle-ranking terai groups priestly functionaries medieval Malla period jyapus among... Shivamargi ( Hindu ) Newars 2020, at 05:06 system surrounds a of... Living in 21st century and now also you believe in high and low cast at a much lower.! ” in the daily lives of the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided into hierarchical lower caste of newar groups by occupational,. 2.9 % Dalit. [ 9 ] ; Nobles and royal descendants military. ; not accepted as, Fishermen, sweepers, traditional executioners please click.! Group, consisting of several hereditary groups of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat, Raya, Rajalwat etc!
Salsa Lizano Replacement, Carrot Apple Raisin Salad Without Mayonnaise, Gandia Blasco Chaise Lounge, Champion Lyrics Fall Out Boy, Dividing Mixed Numbers Worksheet Pdf, Owners Holiday Lettings, Pen Writing Instrument Synonymmicrosoft Message Analyzer Silent Install, Wright Patterson Afb General Surgery Residency, Pantene Pro V Miracles Dual-active Oil Serum Review, How Do You Cook Bamboo,