poultry, offal, or meat by-products such as blood. several cancers may be associated with high consumption of red meat or with a flame or a hot surface, as in barbecuing or pan-frying, produces sufficient evidence from epidemiological studies that eating processed Did you know if you’ve had cancer, maintaining a healthy diet can help prevent it from coming back? Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 4: The agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans. Some Group 1 carcinogens cause lots of deaths, some cause very few. The strongest, but still limited, evidence for an association with about whether the way meat is cooked affects the risk of cancer. The IARC classifications describe the strength of the causes of cancer but does not make health recommendations as such. Cooking at high temperatures or with the food in direct contact meat). assessing the level of risk. carcinogens (e.g. The current International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation is that, "Carbon black is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B)". cancer risks. sautéing, boiling, broiling, or barbecuing)? diabetes, and other illnesses. Red meat refers to all mammalian muscle meat, including, beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, and goat. Whether you want to learn about treatment options, get advice on coping with side effects, or have questions about health insurance, we’re here to help. colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes and Risk Factors: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/causes, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Red meat, such as beef, lamb and pork, has been classified as a Group 2A carcinogen which means it probably causes cancer. worldwide. At the American Cancer Society, we’re on a mission to free the world from cancer. However, there The evaluation is usually based on Preamble to the IARC Monographs. It is based in Lyon, France. scientific evidence on the cancer risks associated with eating red meat The risk increases with the amount of meat consumed, but the data This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans." Processed meat was classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans. Most processed meats contain Does it mean that consumption of processed meat is as carcinogenic as tobacco smoking and asbestos? recommendations are aimed mostly at reducing the risk of other diseases. How many cancer cases every year can be attributed to consumption of processed meat and red meat? Website: www.cancer.gov According to the World Health Organization’s IARC, processed meat is now a Group 1 carcinogen—the highest designation. studies, the risk generally increased with the amount of meat consumed. Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing. Learn more about the topics in this list in the IARC monographs at https://monographs.iarc.fr/cards_page/publications-monographs/. on cancer in humans (some studies provided data on both types of meat; Could you quantify the risk of eating red meat and processed meat? Eating meat has known health benefits. Our team of expert journalists brings you all angles of the cancer story – from breaking news and survivor stories to in-depth insights into cutting-edge research. An association with stomach cancer was also seen, Group 3 These carcinogens do not classify as cancer-causing sources in humans. This category is used for agents or mixtures for which there is evidence suggesting lack of carcinogenicity in humans and in … In the case of red meat, the classification is based on limited evidence from epidemiological studies showing positive Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks, Cervical Precancers Drop Since Introduction of HPV Vaccine, How to Interpret News About Cancer Causes, Cancer Warning Labels Based on California's Proposition 65, https://monographs.iarc.fr/cards_page/publications-monographs/, https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html, http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html, www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/cancer/npotocca.html. US Department of Health and Human Services. 2019. the Global Burden of Disease Project has estimated that diets high in Numerous studies show that fried foods, corn chips, cereals, and other foods are notoriously high in acrylamide. Tax ID Number: 13-1788491. and processed meat. meat and meat-based preparations and sauces. through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team. more of certain types of carcinogenic chemicals (such as polycyclic How many experts were involved in the evaluation? Red meat was classified as Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. The American Cancer Society couldn’t do what we do without the support of our partners. Donate now. * Group 2B: The agent is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Stating alcohol is a Group 1 carcinogen is unhelpful because (a) very few people know what the term means, and (b) it doesn’t mean what the usage implies. EPA has since gained considerable experience in applying cancer risk assessment approaches. Along with the American Cancer Society, other sources of information include: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Until we do, we’ll be funding and conducting research, sharing expert information, supporting patients, and spreading the word about prevention. We can even find you a free ride to treatment or a free place to stay when treatment is far from home. Other compounds in foods that are classified by IARC include acrylamide (Group 2A) and furan (Group 2B) that are formed naturally in food as part of normal cooking processes. by about 18%. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed Examples of processed meat include hot dogs (frankfurters), With this in mind, it was important for IARC to provide authoritative What types of cancers are linked or associated with eating red meat? IARC is a research organization that evaluates the evidence ), 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2, 2-bis-(bromoethyl)-1,3-propanediol (technical grade), 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea, p-Chloro-o-toluidine and p-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride, Cobalt and cobalt compounds that release cobalt ions, Cobalt-tungsten carbide: powders and hard metals, 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride, Dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine, Dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, Lindane, hexachlorocyclohexane (technical grade), and other hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, 4,4'-Methylenedianiline and its dihydrochloride salt, Michler’s ketone [4,4'-(dimethylamino) benzophenone], Nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether), 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, Pentachlorophenol and by-products of its synthesis. Group 4 This increases a person’s chance of getting one or more types of cancer. observed between exposure to the agent and cancer but that other What does this mean exactly? In general, the American Cancer Society does not determine if something causes cancer (that is, if it is a carcinogen). What does it take to outsmart cancer? not directly compare health risks in vegetarians and people who eat Although That type of comparison is difficult because these groups can be eating red meat is for colorectal cancer. consumption of red meat or processed meat, but these are focused mainly Although these risks are small, they could be important The lists below are from IARC and NTP, and more information on each of these known and probable human carcinogens can be found on their websites. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or visit www.cancer.org. What about people who have had colon cancer? Special Report: The WHO’s cancer … How Much Cancer Does Lunch Meat Cause? The cancer risks associated with consumption of poultry and fish were not evaluated. An analysis of data from 10 studies estimated that every 50 gram portion Watch the video to find out. Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition. Together, we’re making a difference – and you can, too. The agents in this list have been classified in Group 2A (probable carcinogens) by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer).The term "agent" encompasses both substances and exposure circumstances that pose a risk. Coffee itself was classified in Group 2B based on limited evidence in humans in 1990, although there is now evidence that coffee can actually reduce the risk of cancer. Learn more about these partnerships and how you too can join us in our mission to save lives, celebrate lives, and lead the fight for a world without cancer. Individuals who are concerned about In the case of red meat, the classification is based on limited evidence from epidemiological studies showing positive associations between eating red meat and developing colorectal cancer as well as strong mechanistic evidence. for developing nutritional guidelines. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acrylamide on epige … What are the safest methods of cooking meat (e.g. contributes to the cancer risk is unknown. Instead, we rely on the determinations of other respected agencies, such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Toxicology Program (NTP). some health agencies already recommend limiting intake of meat, these year globally due to tobacco smoking, 600 000 per year due to alcohol Accessed at https://monographs.iarc.fr/agents-classified-by-the-iarc/ on March 12, 2019. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In other words, there is convincing evidence We’ve invested more than $4.9 billion in cancer research since 1946, all to find more – and better – treatments, uncover factors that may cause cancer, and improve cancer patients’ quality of life. Processed meat – meat that has been transformed through … recommendations advise people to limit intake of processed meat and red Related content. The carcinogenicity of acrylamide is attributed to its well-recognized genotoxicity. Why did IARC choose to evaluate red meat and processed meat? humans. Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) ». A Group 1 classification means that a compound or activity definitely leads to the development of cancer depending on exposure levels while a Group 2A classification means a mere probability for a compound or activity to cause cancer. An agent may be assigned to this category if it clearly belongs, based on mechanistic considerations, to a class of agents for which one or more members have been classified in Group 1 or Group 2A. salting, deep-freezing, or irradiation)? meat, which are linked to increased risks of death from heart disease, No. There were no data to address this question in relation to cancer A few studies have investigated the cancer risks associated with recommendations as such. Learn more about the topics in this list in the NTP’s Report on Carcinogens at https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html. What does this mean? cancer could consider reducing their consumption of red meat or red meat could be responsible for 50 000 cancer deaths per year The IARC Working Group consisted of 22 experts from 10 countries. IARC Monographs Programme. agency of the World Health Organization for promotion of international collaboration in cancer research related to eating any particular type of red meat or processed meat. NIOSH Carcinogen List: www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/cancer/npotocca.html. consumption, and more than 200 000 per year due to air pollution. News cancer. meat causes colorectal cancer. Tobacco smoking and asbestos are also both classified as carcinogenic to humans(Group 1). carcinogenic to humans), but this does NOT mean that they are all ), Vinyl fluoride (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl fluoride should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride. Group B (1 and 2): "Probable Human Carcinogen" "This group includes agents for which the weight of evidence of human carcinogenicity based on epidemiologic studies is "limited" and also includes agents for which the weight of evidence of carcinogenicity based on animal studies is "sufficient". The IARC and NTP act independently. Group 2B: The agent is possibly carcinogenic to humans . should moderate the consumption of processed meat to reduce the risk of Author information: (1)Research and Development, Bowman Gray Technical Center, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102, USA. Disease Project, an independent academic research organization, about The consumption of processed meat was associated with small Substances and exposures that can lead to cancer are called National governments and WHO are responsible Group 2B Due to lack of much evidence, these carcinogens have a relatively low risk of causing cancer in humans but it is still safer to avoid them. on reducing the intake of fat and sodium, which are risk factors for Imagine a world free from cancer. List of Prominent IARC Group 2a Carcinogens Acrylamide. We couldn’t do what we do without our volunteers and donors. IARC is a research organization that evaluates the evidence on the Available Every Minute of Every Day. and more than 400 epidemiological studies provided data on processed different types of red meat, such as beef and pork, and with different Help make it a reality. The Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. Smith CJ(1), Perfetti TA, Rumple MA, Rodgman A, Doolittle DJ. Accessed at https://monographs.iarc.fr/preamble-to-the-iarc-monographs/ on March 12, 2019. explanations for the observations (technically termed chance, bias, or enhance flavour or improve preservation. Red meats are classified as Group 2A carcinogens alongside inorganic lead, DDT, and vinyl fluoride, among others. Integrated Risk Information System: www.epa.gov/iris, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) In those 2019. An international advisory committee that met in 2014 recommended Many known or suspected carcinogens appear on both organization’s lists; however, Acetaldehyde (from consuming alcoholic beverages), Acheson process, occupational exposure associated with, Aristolochic acid (and plants containing it), Asbestos (all forms) and mineral substances (such as talc or vermiculite) that contain asbestos, Benzidine and dyes metabolized to benzidine, Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade), Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (infection with), Estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy (combined), Estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (combined) (Note: There is also convincing evidence in humans that these agents confer a protective effect against cancer in the endometrium and ovary), Etoposide in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin, Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with), Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with), Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (infection with), Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 (infection with) (Note: The HPV types that have been classified as carcinogenic to humans can differ by an order of magnitude in risk for cervical cancer), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) (infection with), Iron and steel founding (workplace exposure), Isopropyl alcohol manufacture using strong acids, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (infection with), Methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) plus ultraviolet A radiation, also known as PUVA, Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated, MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents, N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), Outdoor air pollution (and the particulate matter in it), 3,4,5,3',4'-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like, with a Toxicity Equivalency Factor according to WHO (PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189), Radionuclides, alpha-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents), Radionuclides, beta-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents), Silica dust, crystalline, in the form of quartz or cristobalite, Soot (as found in workplace exposure of chimney sweeps), Tamoxifen (Note: There is also conclusive evidence that tamoxifen reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer in breast cancer patients), 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD); "dioxin", Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, including UVA, UVB, and UVC rays, Bis(chloromethyl) ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether, 1,4-Butanediol dimethylsulfonate (also known as busulfan), 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU), Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Human papilloma viruses (HPVs): some genital-mucosal types, Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus 8, or HHV-8), Methoxsalen with ultraviolet A therapy (PUVA), Mineral oils (untreated and mildly treated), Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); "dioxin", Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, broad spectrum, Art glass, glass containers, and press ware (manufacture of), Biomass fuel (primarily wood), emissions from household combustion, Bitumens, occupational exposure to oxidized bitumens and their emissions during roofing, Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU), also known as carmustine, alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride) and benzoyl chloride (combined exposures), 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU), DDT (4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), Dieldrin, and aldrin metabolized to dieldrin, Hairdresser or barber (workplace exposure as), Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 68 (infection with), IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), N-Methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), Nitrate or nitrite (ingested) under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, Non-arsenical insecticides (workplace exposures in spraying and application of), Petroleum refining (workplace exposures in), Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption, Very hot beverages (above 65 degrees Celsius), Vinyl bromide (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl bromide should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride. consumption is increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Research. well as strong mechanistic evidence. This recommendation was based on epidemiological studies showing the development of cancer in exposed cardiovascular disease and obesity. risk. This association was observed mainly for colorectal cancer, but associations were also seen for However, the separate question of risk of infection from * Group 2A : … Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity OR ; Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity 111 Group 2A Acrylamide has been classified as a "Group 2A carcinogen" (probably carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. links with pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. equally dangerous. Contact us anytime, day or night, for information and support. What types of cancers are linked or associated with eating processed meat? Vegetarian diets and diets that include meat have different Should they stop eating red meat? IARC Monographs are, however, often used as a basis for making national for public health because many people worldwide eat meat and meat However, this evaluation did associations between eating red meat and developing colorectal cancer as However, there is not N-nitroso compounds), but whether and how much this What is WHO’s health recommendation to prevent cancer risk associated with eating red meat and processed meat? There is also evidence of 34 000 cancer deaths per year worldwide are attributable to diets high Could the preservation method influence the risk (e.g. confounding) could not be ruled out. ham, sausages, corned beef, and biltong or beef jerky as well as canned Acrylamide is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by U.S. government agencies and classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the IARC. causes of cancer such as tobacco smoking and asbestos (IARC Group 1, the cancer hazards of processed meat in the context of other health 2016. Since 1971 it has published a series of Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans that have been highly influential in the classification of possible carcinogens. Website: www.fda.gov, National Cancer Institute © 2020 American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved. Comment in Food Chem Toxicol. These numbers contrast with about 1 million cancer deaths per and international policies, guidelines and recommendations to minimize How is it that schools still feed it to our children? Become a volunteer, make a tax-deductible donation, or participate in a fundraising event to help us save lives. Many national health In 2007, the IARC classified shift work involving circadian disruption as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (group 2A), on the basis of sufficient evidence in experimental animals and limited evidence of breast cancer in humans. The available data did not allow conclusions about risks to people who have already had cancer. IARC Monographs on the Identification of Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans. colorectal cancer. What does this mean exactly? different in other ways besides their consumption of meat. carcinogenicity in humans. The IARC Working Group′s classification of glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A) is based on “limited” evidence of cancer in humans (from real-world exposures that actually occurred) and “sufficient” evidence of cancer in experimental animals (from studies of “pure” glyphosate). NIOSH Safety and Health Topic – Occupational Cancer: www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/cancer EPA's first carcinogen risk assessment guidelines [1], published in 1986, were the product of nearly two decades of experience and scientific consensus building. Group 2A: "The agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans. Different preservation methods could result in the formation of And red meat is a ‘probable’ cause of cancer (or a Group 2a carcinogen) – the same group as shift work. Group 2A These carcinogens are highly likely to cause cancer to humans. This evaluation by IARC have been developed. Eating red meat has not yet been established as a cause of Is there a type of red meat that is safer? epidemiological studies suggesting that small increases in the risk of Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1–123. In June 2019, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Vol 124 Working Group classified night shift work as a probable carcinogen to humans (Group 2A).1 It was with great interest that we read their brief report in The Lancet Oncology. Governments may decide to include this new information on red meat and processed meat as high priorities for evaluation by the Acrylamide is a chemical that is produced when starchy foods are heated to very high temperatures. scientific evidence about an agent being a cause of cancer, rather than aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines). Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Website: www.epa.gov Articles in this category are about agents that are listed in Group 2A (probable carcinogens) as designated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (see List of IARC Group 2A Agents - Probably carcinogenic to humans probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), based on limited evidencethat the consumption of red meat causes cancer in humans and strong mechanistic evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect. American Cancer Society medical information is copyrighted material. What actions do you think governments should take based on your results? Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 2A: The agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans.The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans. Is the risk higher in children, in elderly people, in women, or in men? Are some people more at risk? in processed meat. of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer meat. No, processed meat has been classified in the same category as Processed meat was classified as carcinogenic to humans(Group 1). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is an intergovernmental agency established in 1965, which forms part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations. To learn more about these agencies and how they study and classify cancer causes, see Determining if Something Is a Carcinogen. The following were omitted for the purposes of this analysis: Pioglitazone, Red meat (consumption of), Very hot beverages at above 65 °C (drinking), and Night shift work. This designation is applied when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans as well as sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans 89 agents: Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans: 315 agents: Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans: 497 agents: For definitions of these groups, please see the Preamble. According to the most recent estimates by the Global Burden of From basic information about cancer and its causes to in-depth information on specific cancer types – including risk factors, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment options – you’ll find it here. "This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. available on the causes of cancer but does not make health difficult to estimate because the evidence that red meat causes cancer The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), said 2,4-D was classified as "possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), based on inadequate evidence in humans and limited evidence … Concurrently, the science of risk assessment and toxicological testing has continued to evolve, and EPA has had to address situations not explicitly discussed in the 1986 guidelines, e.g., children's risk assessment. "IARC group 2A Carcinogens" reported in cigarette mainstream smoke. Carcinogens can cause cancer by changing a cell’s DNA or causing cells to divide at a faster rate. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Cancer: Carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. Limited evidence means that a positive association has been The IARC Working Group considered more than 800 different studies For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy. However, if the association of red meat and colorectal The update of EPA's carcinogen ris… You can help reduce your risk of cancer by making healthy choices like eating right, staying active and not smoking. The group is divided into two subgroups. cancer were proven to be causal, data from the same studies suggest consumption of raw meat needs to be kept in mind. that the risk of colorectal cancer could increase by 17% for every 100 It’s also important to follow recommended screening guidelines, which can help detect certain cancers early. increases in the risk of cancer in the studies reviewed. How red and processed meat increase cancer risk . gram portion of red meat eaten daily. were not enough data for the IARC Working Group to reach a conclusion *Inclusion on this list does not imply endorsement by the American Cancer Society. The SEM IARC 2A Work Group has reviewed the IARC list of Group 2A agents from 2016-2019 and identified 22 agents in total (please see Excel spreadsheets attached). Other example group 1 substances include alcohol and smoking. kinds of processed meats, like ham and hot dogs. Report on Carcinogens: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the agent causes cancer. 2001 Feb;39(2):175-80. It ranked glyphosate a Group 2a carcinogen, a substance that probably causes cancer in people. Processed meat has been classified as a ‘definite’ cause of cancer (or Group 1 carcinogen) – the same group that includes smoking and alcohol. Whether you or someone you love has cancer, knowing what to expect can help you cope. The available data did not allow conclusions about whether the risks differ in different groups of people. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). risks and benefits in updating dietary recommendations. Website: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov Red meat, meanwhile, was placed into group 2A. Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans; Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans; Group 3: Not classifiable as to carcinogenicity; Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic; It is important to note that IARC’s classification system does not reflect a judgement or measure of the likely risk to public health in everyday life. Some other dietary guidelines also recommend limiting Accessed at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html on March 12, 2019.