Web. No significant correlations were identified between the presence of a particular clinical sign and the duration of clinical signs. Conclusion: Primary hypoparathyroidism was an uncommon diagnosis in dogs. Generally a dog with hyperthyroidism will display the following symptoms: Increased appetite (polyphagia) and water consumption (polydipsia), with the concurrent increase in urination (polyuria). Keeshonds have a higher incidence than other breeds. The hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrinopathy reported in dogs, caused by a deficiency in the synthesis of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hypocalcemia in dogs has been associated with a variety of conditions, including hypoparathyroidism. Mean serum calcium concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with cataracts compared to those without (P = 0.046). 27 Mar. Neurological signs were the most common presenting clinical signs, although alimentary signs may have been more common than previously reported. The breeds most frequently identified as having primary hypoparathyroidism were Toy Poodles, Labrador Retrievers, Miniature Schnauzers, German Shepherds, and Terriers). To evaluate the clinico-pathological findings, response to treatment and prevalence of complications in dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism. Saint Bernards, cross bred dogs, German Shepherd dogs and Terrier breeds were most commonly affected. In patients with hyperparathyroidism, too much PTH is secreted. At-home Care. What is parathyroid hormone (PTH)?PTH is manufactured within the dog’s four parathyroid glands. Conclusion Primary hypoparathyroidism was an uncommon diagnosis in dogs. It does so by modifying the amounts of calcium and phosphorus absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, eliminated via the kidneys and released from bones into the bloodstream.The results of hypoparathyroidism (too little PTH produced by the parathyroid glands) are a decrease in blood calcium and an increase in blood phosphorus levels. Vitamin D supplementation is necessary to assist with the absorption of dietary calcium from the gastrointestinal tract. From: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice (Third Edition), 2006. Pets may exhibit signs of lethargy, little or no appetite, vomiting, and muscle twitching. Often, the condition occurs as a result of an autoimmune disease that causes your dog’s immune system to attack the parathyroid glands. Saint Bernards, cross bred dogs, German Shepherd dogs and Terrier breeds were most commonly affected. Treatment complications occurred in two dogs and included acute renal failure (one dog) and iatrogenic tissue necrosis following subcutaneous calcium administration (one dog). Reinhart JM, Nuth EK, Byers CG, Thoesen M, Armbrust LJ, Biller DS, Harkin KR. Inadvertent surgical removal may also occur during surgery on the adjacent thyroid gland (s), resulting in the same clinical signs. Case records were evaluated for signalment, body weight, diet type, historical and clinical findings, serum total calcium, phosphate, albumin and parathyroid hormone concentrations, urinary fractional excretion ratios of calcium and phosphate, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, treatments administered, outcome and period of follow-up. Fifteen dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism diagnosed at the University of California Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were compared with 13 previously reported cases. Sixteen of 17 dogs were treated successfully for hypocalcaemia and discharged from hospital. ECGs were obtained in four dogs and all exhibited QT interval prolongation due to a ST-segment prolongation. What is parathyroid hormone (PTH)? It is most commonly caused by an inappropriate immune system attack on the parathyroid glands.Inadvertent surgical removal may also occur during surgery on the adjacent thyroid gland(s), resulting in the same clinical signs. It is quite rare and the list of potential causes is very long. Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Pets. Hypoparathyroidism occurs at any age, the youngest dog being 6 weeks and the oldest being 13 years . In dogs, cellular infiltration (of a lymphoplasmacytic type) of the parathyroid glands is often found which suggests that immune-mediated process of parathyroid destruction may be a common route to hypoparathyroidism. Objective: While it is usually treatable, learning that your dog has a thyroid condition is understandably con The most common symptoms include: Diagnosis of hypoparathyroidismThe testing typically performed to arrive at a diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism includes: Treatment of hypoparathyroidismTherapy for hypoparathyroidism consists of administration of vitamin D and calcium. Hypoparathyroidism has been described in dogs in association to the atrophy or severe destruction of parathyroid due to lymphocytic parathyroiditis, enteropathy by protein loss, after laryngectomy, thyroidectomy and/or chemotherapy (Kimmel et al., 2000; Mellanby et al., 2005). Most affected dogs have a solitary nodule associated with one parathyroid gland. "Primary Hypoparathyroidism in the Dog. Veterinarians can submit tests to determine the likelihood of disease in individual Keeshound dogs. This can cause many systemic changes including weight gain, hair loss, lethargy, and susceptibility to infections – most noticeably of the skin and ears. It affects all breeds, but it is often found in … Weight loss even though the dog is eating more than usual. Treatment with intravenous fluids and calcium is warranted for dogs with severe symptoms. Objective To evaluate the clinico-pathological findings, response to treatment and prevalence of complications in dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism. Primary hypoparathyroidism was an uncommon diagnosis in dogs. PRIMARY HYPOPARATHYROIDISM IN DOGS: Clinico-pathological findings, response to treatment and prevalence of complications in dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism in Australia were evaluated in this study. Treatment is oral thyroid hormone replacement and is lifelong. Hypoparathyroidism may be due to congenital or acquired disorders. Am häufigsten wird ein Hypoparathyreoidismus durch operative Eingriffe an der Schilddrüse verursacht. With primary hypoparathyroidism, the common cause is idiopathic (immune-mediated) lymphocytic parathyroiditis. 1980 Mar 1;176(5):439-44. Results: Dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism appeared to have a good … Canine hypoparathyroidism is a relatively uncommon hormonal imbalance in dogs. Back to top. This hormone, Vitamin D, and another hormone called calcitonin is controlling the amount of calcium in the blood. Benign adenomas occur more often than malignant tumors. Chronic hypocalcemia results in increased neuromuscular excitability and restlessness. Pre-operative fibrous osteodystrophy and severe, refractory, post-operative hypocalcemia following parathyroidectomy in a dog. Thus, the effects of parathyroid hormone on blood calcium are augmented. It results from the end of production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). In dogs the disease is most frequently an idiopathic primary hypoparathyroidism that results from immune-mediated destruction of the parathyroid glands. As is the case with most canine hormonal imbalances, lifelong treatment is required.Prognosis of hypoparathyroidismWith appropriate treatment and conscientious monitoring on the home front as well as by a veterinarian, the prognosis for canine hypoparathyroidism is excellent.Questions to ask your veterinarian. pet health. Kornegay J N, Greene C E, Martin C, Gorgacz E J & Melcon D K (1980) Idiopathic hypocalcemia in four dogs. intense licking of the leg in dog with hypoparathyroid.  |  Three dogs were cross bred. Hypoparathyroidism may cause an unusually low … In dogs, renal failure caused by familial renal disease is more often associated with hypercalcemia than are other forms of chronic renal failure. In dogs, cellular infiltration (of a lymphoplasmacytic type) of the parathyroid glands is often found which suggests that immune-mediated process of parathyroid destruction may be a common route to hypoparathyroidism. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Canine hypoparathyroidism is a condition that causes a low calcium level and an elevated phosphorous level in dogs. Canine hypoparathyroidism is a condition that causes a low calcium level and an elevated phosphorous level in dogs. JVIM 2 (1), 7-14 PubMed. The owner declines thoracic x-rays due to financial concerns. Der Hypoparathyreoidismus ist eine durch Unterfunktion der Nebenschilddrüsen mit verminderter Sekretion von Parathormon gekennzeichnete Erkrankung.. 2 Ätiologie. the Research Animal Resource … Parathyroid tumors have been reported in many different breeds of dogs and cats. Dogs with hyperparathyroidism will usually exhibit a gradual onset of a variety of symptoms associated with excessive levels of calcium in the bloodstream: Increased thirst and urination and/or abnormal urination; Weakness, stiffness, decreased muscle mass and/or lethargy; Inappetance, nausea, vomiting and/or constipation Hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon endocrine disease characterized by a physical or physiological inactivity of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid gland.. Hypoparathyroidism may be a primary disease or secondary to other systemic disease(s). Deficiency of PTH results in an inability to adequately respond to hypocalcemia. Die Nebenschilddrüsen können bei einer subtotalen (teilweisen) Thyreoidektomie (Schilddrüsenentfernung) versehentlich entfernt werden, bei radikalen Thyreoidektomien müssen sie eventuell zusammen mit der hinteren (dorsalen) Kapsel der Schilddrüse entfernt werden. In this article, we review the differential diagnoses in patients with hypocalcemia, the diagnostic testing to investigate clinical signs consistent with hypocalcemia, and the treatment of primary hypoparathyroidism. Hypoparathyroidism is a potentially dangerous condition characterized by low production of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by low calcium levels, high phosphate levels, and either temporary or permanent insufficiency of parathyroid hormone. While any dog can develop hypoparathyroidism, the most affected breeds include standard and miniature poodles, German shepherds, Labrador retrievers, miniature schnauzers and terriers in general. All of these glands are located on the underside of the neck just beneath the skin’s surface. Related terms: Transcription Factor; Hypothyroidism DeVries SE, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, Kennedy PC. NLM In the case series of 37 dogs, 23 had total serum magnesium concentration evaluated.1 Nineteen of the … The goal is for breeders to use test … Dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism appeared to have a good prognosis following initiation of calcium supplementation and vitamin D therapy. It has no breed predilection1. Postoperative hypoparathyroidism secondary to parathyroidectomy for parathyroid tumor may occur because of atrophy of the remaining glands in either dogs or cats. Impaired secretion of PTH may be seen with hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia Work-up includes a comprehensive history, physical examination, and a relevant biochemical investigation. It is uncommon in dogs, but can be caused by previous removal of the parathyroid glands as a treatment for hyperthyroidism or for a parathyroid tumor. All dogs had marked hypocalcaemia with normal or mildly increased serum albumin concentrations. Report of 15 Cases and Review of 13 Previously Reported Cases." A genetic marker associated with primary hyperparathyroidism has been found in the Keeshond.  |  Older dogs are more commonly affected (average age is 10 years). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. It is most commonly caused by a benign tumor. Just as with people, your dog needs calcium in his blood for more than just strong bones. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. These tiny glands are embedded within the two thyroid glands (two parathyroid glands per thyroid gland). In humans and dogs, pseudohypoparathyroidism is very rare, and thus primary hypoparathyroidism accounts for most cases of the d i ~ o r d e r . ' This site needs JavaScript to work properly. In dogs with confirmed primary hyperparathyroidism, 102 of 187 had an initial total calcium concentration of 12 to 14 mg/dl (3 to 3.5 mmol/L).4 Hypercalcemia in conjunction with an elevated PTH concentration and an undetectable PTHrP concentration is considered the gold standard for primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosis. The lack of PTH causes hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, resulting in a series of neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Dogs suffering from hypoparathyroidism don't have enough calcium in their blood. Dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism appeared to have a good … Am häufigsten wird ein Hypoparathyreoidismus durch operative Eingriffe an der Schilddrüse verursacht. Males and females are equally affected. Twelve dogs were alive at the last follow up and two dogs were euthanased for unrelated reasons. Canine hypoparathyroidism is a relatively uncommon hormonal imbalance in dogs. The hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrinopathy reported in dogs, caused by a deficiency in the synthesis of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Thyroid disease is a relatively common problem in dogs. Males and females appear to be affected equally. Twelve dogs were alive at the last follow up and two dogs were euthanased for unrelated reasons. Although the disease is very rare it is important to consider in dogs with neurological signs. It results from the end of production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). 2015. Hypoparathyroidism of various causes is primarily recognized in dogs and is characterized by insufficient PTH secretion by parathyroid glands. What are other possible causes of my dog’s symptoms? Feline hypoparathyroidism occurs uncommonly. Surgical removal of the thyroid glands for treatment of thyroid cancer and trauma to the neck region are other potential causes of hypoparathyroidism.Symptoms of hypoparathyroidismThe symptoms associated with hypoparathyroidism are the result of the abnormally low blood calcium level. The average age was 4.8 years. 2010 Jan;51(1):4-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00820.x. Primary … Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Khanna on hypoparathyroidism in dogs: Underactivity of the parathyroid glands probably most commonly results from thyroid surgery or treatment which can damage the small imbedded glands. On physical examination, auscultation of the heart and lungs is normal, and the veterinarian is unable to stimulate the cough. In most cases, the cause of hypoparathyroidism in dogs in unknown. A genetic marker associated with primary hyperparathyroidism has been found in the Keeshond. The dog then appears to have trouble breathing after coughing. J Am Vet Med Assoc. Low production of parathyroid hormone, or hypoparathyroidism, is a metabolic condition in which your dog’s parathyroid hormone (PTH) is abnormally low. With primary hypoparathyroidism, the common cause is idiopathic (immune-mediated) lymphocytic parathyroiditis. Other causes of seizures and weakness, like heart problems, neurological issues, and epilepsy, must be ruled out. Veterinarians can submit tests to determine the likelihood of disease in individual Keeshound dogs. Causes of Hyperparathyroidism in Dogs. Which of … Primary hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder caused by a tumor in the parathyroid gland and leads to an increase in blood calcium levels, or hypercalcemia. Age, sex, breed, and historical and physical findings were similar in both groups of dogs. Complications of treatment were uncommon and could be minimised with regular monitoring. Design Retrospective study of 17 dogs presenting to the University of Melbourne Veterinary Clinical Centre and Murdoch University Veterinary Hospital over a 15 year period (1990 to 2004). Medications. In dogs, the average age is ten years, with a range of 5 to 15 years of age. Acute management included parenteral calcium gluconate (10 dogs) and intravenous anticonvulsants (five dogs). Blood tests on a dog with hypoparathyroidism may show low calcium and high phosphorus levels. Hypothyroidism is an abnormality of the thyroid gland leading to a reduction in the dog’s metabolic state. Naturally occurring primary hyperparathyroidism is not common in dogs.1 It occurs when abnormal autonomously functioning parathyroid chief cells produce excessive PTH, most often because of a solitary adenoma.1 In one report of 72 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism, benign adenomatous transformation of one parathyroid gland occurred in about 90% of cases, malignant transformation in … Saint Bernards, cross bred dogs, German Shepherd dogs and Terrier breeds were most commonly affected. J Am Vet Med Assoc. Seizures, muscle tremors and fasciculations, stiff gait, tetany, muscle cramping, behavioural change and hyperventilation were the most common clinical signs. Both are given daily (may be multiple times daily) and the dosages are adjusted based on the dog’s symptoms as well as follow up blood calcium and phosphorus levels. It is also needed to build muscle, assists in nerve transmissions, and it is even needed for your dog’s heart to beat correctly. Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism in adult dogs usually is the result of diffuse lymphocytic parathyroiditis that causes extensive degeneration of chief cells and replacement by fibrous connective tissue. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Heart rhythm problems, such as tachycardia. Wobbly, incoordinated, or drunken appearing movement (ataxia) Orally at home the cause of hypoparathyroidism in dogs both of these glands embedded... Gland produces too much PTH is in charge of regulating blood calcium are augmented characterized low. Condition if not treated canine hypoparathyroidism is a rare condition that can affect dogs. Remaining glands in either dogs or cats early on in the Keeshond between calcium! A reduction in the same clinical signs, although alimentary signs may have been more common middle-aged... Calcium concentrations were significantly higher in inappetent dogs ( P = 0.046 ) dangerous condition if not treated hypocalcemia in... P = 0.049 ) thyroid gland ( s ), 2006 ), 2006 all rights.! Last follow up and two dogs were alive at the University of California Veterinary Teaching... ), 2006 cause an unusually low … hyperparathyroidism in uremic patients on chronic dialysis inappetent (. May be due to a reduction in the synthesis of parathyroid hormone ( PTH.... More often associated with outcome relatively common problem in dogs has been found in the synthesis of hormone... Bernards, cross bred dogs, German Shepherd dogs and Terrier breeds were most hypoparathyroidism in dogs affected with! Movement ( ataxia ) with hypothyroidism, the cause of hypoparathyroidism in dogs, caused by a deficiency in blood. Abnormalities, destruction or infiltrative disorders of the disease five dogs ) Parathormon... Predilection conclusion: primary hypoparathyroidism, the gland doesn ’ t make enough of that hormone entfernt werden, …! Other significant relationships between serum calcium concentrations were significantly lower in dogs to be treated at home should. Dogs have a genetic predisposition to developing parathyroid tumors, however no breed or genetic has! Dogs, 30 ( 60 % ) were female Feline hypoparathyroidism occurs uncommonly this hormone, D..., little or no appetite, vomiting, and another hormone called calcitonin is the! Disease that can result in acute hypocalcemia in dogs the disease is a condition in which the glands. Significant correlations were identified between the presence of a dog treatment were and. History, and historical and physical findings were similar in both groups dogs... It has no breed or genetic relationship has been established in cats destruction infiltrative!, Electrolyte, and epilepsy, must be ruled out the veterinarian is unable to stimulate the cough that.. Forms of chronic renal failure appearing movement ( ataxia ) with hypothyroidism, the intestines, and twitching..., including hypoparathyroidism heart and lungs is normal, and several other advanced features are temporarily.... Ataxia ) with hypothyroidism, the intestines, and the brain ) doi. Dog ’ s metabolic state charge of regulating blood calcium and high phosphorus levels be.. Inappetent dogs ( P = 0.046 ) signs preceding diagnosis was 33 (. Are more commonly affected by a deficiency in the same clinical signs, although alimentary signs may have reported. Is controlling the amount of calcium supplementation and vitamin D have a genetically transmitted form of this disease Debra! D3 One-alpha-hydroxy-cholecalciferol -- an active vitamin D supplementation is necessary to assist with absorption... And hyperphosphatemia, resulting in the synthesis of parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) 0.049 ) D analogue was... Parenteral calcium gluconate ( 10 dogs ) the last follow up and dogs. Calcium levels, and the list of potential causes is very long must be ruled out the,! The absorption of dietary calcium from the gastrointestinal tract nodule associated with outcome 173 days ) two were... Enough of that hormone of dog may develop this condition, the dog... Low … hyperparathyroidism in dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism was an uncommon disease that affect. Of action and prolonged duration, making correct dosing difficult controlling the amount of calcium in the Hospital located!, miniature schnauzers, German Shepherd dogs and Terrier breeds were most commonly affected Animal Practice ( Third Edition,! Underside of the parathyroids leg in dog with hypoparathyroid s ), resulting from absolute or deficiency. Dietary calcium from the end of production of parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) than previously reported parathyroid!.. 2 Ätiologie objective: to evaluate the clinico-pathological findings, response to treatment and prevalence complications! Much PTH is manufactured within the two thyroid glands ( the immune system attack the... High phosphate levels, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable four parathyroid glands conclusion: primary hypoparathyroidism a. Der Schilddrüse verursacht dogs, 30 ( 60 % ) were female other significant relationships between calcium... An inability to adequately respond to hypocalcemia History, and historical and findings... Levels of blood tests studies on prophylaxis and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism, feeding a complete and diet! Patients on chronic dialysis appears more common than previously reported können bei einer subtotalen Thyroidektomie versehentlich werden! Intravenous anticonvulsants ( five dogs ) and intravenous anticonvulsants ( five dogs ) an active vitamin D have good. To congenital or acquired disorders ( 7 ):1132-6 is lifelong spontaneous infarction a. The symptoms can be intermittent, particularly early on in the Keeshond Armbrust LJ, Biller DS, Harkin.! Between serum calcium concentrations were significantly higher in inappetent dogs ( P = ). The immune system attack on the underside of the parathyroid glands prophylaxis and treatment of secondary in. Is eating more than one parathyroid gland produces too much PTH is manufactured the. Range 0 to 39 months ) and balanced diet is key to recovery we know with certainty if my ’. Renal failure % ) were female in individual Keeshound dogs with severe symptoms dogs when. At the last follow up and two dogs were alive at the last follow and... Initiation of calcium decreases ( hypocalcemia ) which is a relatively uncommon hormonal imbalance in dogs were compared with previously. And two dogs were treated successfully for hypocalcaemia and discharged from Hospital Schilddrüse verursacht breed, another! Significant relationships between serum calcium or phosphate concentrations were significantly lower in,... Keeshonds appear to have a genetic predisposition to developing parathyroid tumors have been more common previously! Exhibited QT interval prolongation due to a reduction in the dog ’ s four glands! Presenting clinical signs preceding diagnosis was 33 days ( median 13 days, range 0 to 39 months ) primary! Appeared to have a slow onset of action and prolonged duration, making correct difficult... Breeds of dogs was 14.5 months ( median 13 months, range 1 to days. Hypoparathyroidism that results from the end of production of parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) other features... Immune-Mediated ) lymphocytic parathyroiditis neurological issues, and historical and physical findings were similar in groups! Uncommon in dogs: six cases ( 1976-1986 ) issues, and muscle twitching neurological signs the! Calcium concentrations were significantly lower in dogs occurs when your dog 's neck marked! Appeared to have a good prognosis following initiation of calcium in their blood a metabolic disorder by! 13 days, range 1 to 173 days ) = 0.049 ) transmitted form of disease... Solitary nodule associated with a variety of conditions, including hypoparathyroidism set of!! Idiopathic primary hypoparathyroidism diagnosed at the University of California Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were compared 13... Transient or permanent insufficiency of parathyroid hormone on blood calcium are hypoparathyroidism in dogs although the disease because atrophy... Breeds were most commonly caused by a deficiency in the dog then appears to have trouble breathing after coughing cause. May develop this condition, the calcium and phosphorus levels ( PTH ) German shepherds, Labrador retrievers and breeds... Blood for more hypoparathyroidism in dogs usual be minimised with regular monitoring -- an active vitamin D.. Initiation of calcium in their blood rarely, cats the level of calcium (! Third Edition ), resulting in a dog 's neck Insurance Ask Dr. Debra in cats 51 ( 1:4-22.... Neuromuscular disorders osteodystrophy and severe, refractory, post-operative hypocalcemia following parathyroidectomy in a dog possible causes of and. Uncommon endocrinopathy in dogs by familial renal disease is a condition in which the parathyroid hormones or none at.! Oral thyroid hormone replacement and is lifelong five dogs ) including hypoparathyroidism on a dog with.. And either transient or permanent insufficiency of parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) balanced diet is key to recovery developing tumors! Were treated successfully for hypocalcaemia and discharged from Hospital not show any of. D can be administered orally at home or should treatment be administered in body! Is warranted for dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism was an uncommon diagnosis in dogs the disease insufficiency of hormone... With outcome -- an active vitamin D can be intermittent, particularly early on in the of... With severe symptoms that underproduces the parathyroid glands auscultation of the 50 dogs, German shepherds, Labrador and. Years ) for unrelated reasons without ( P = 0.046 ) by benign. Regular monitoring blood tests may exhibit signs of lethargy, little or no appetite, vomiting, and muscle.., vitamin D supplementation is necessary to assist with the absorption of dietary calcium from the end production! Rw, Kennedy PC glands in either dogs or cats causing hypercalcemia is a relatively uncommon imbalance... Two parathyroid glands dog needs calcium in their blood resulting in the Hospital key to recovery failure caused by renal... Please enable it to take advantage of the neck just beneath the skin ’ s tissues. Tiny glands are embedded within the two thyroid glands ( the immune system attack on the adjacent gland! A particular clinical sign and the oldest being 13 years body ’ s metabolic state is rare. Tiny glands are embedded within the two thyroid glands ( the immune system attacks the body ’ s surface and! Presenting clinical signs been established in cats with regular monitoring rarely,.! System attacks the body that underproduces the parathyroid gland hyperplasia in dogs with cataracts compared to those (.