Early in the spring of 218 BC, Hannibal set out from Carthago Nova, … The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally... Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general... Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with. Scipio fielded 30,000 infantry and 5,500 cavalry, which included 6,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry from Masinissa. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. The outcome of the wars established the enduring legacy of the Roman Empire as one of the greatest in the whole of history. (300 words or more Original NO copy paste) Expert Answer . ... Second Punic War begins. 50,000 of the enemy were killed compared to 5,700 on Carthaginian side, most of those being Gauls. Brief history of governance The clock was ticking and Rome had time on their side. Related Content This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania. Second Punic War 218 B.C. Then in 221 BCE a new face arrived on the scene: Hannibal, eldest son of Hamilcar Barca. The Second Punic War was fought between Rome, Carthage, and their mutual allies. However, all the Latin colonies and central Italy remained loyal to Rome and this meant that Hannibal’s new acquisitions had to be constantly defended. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. There were many potential causes of the Second Punic War, but the harsh result of the First Punic War was the most influential factor in the start of the Second Punic War. They were then herded back in the direction of the Carthaginians to cause havoc there. Realising they were up against one of history’s greatest commanders, Rome changed tactics and adopted a policy of avoiding Hannibal in direct battle, instead fighting only his allies. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Most of the leadership in Cartha… Hasdrubal escaped to Italy but the remains of his army were defeated at the Metaurus River the following year. In 226 BCE Hasdrubal had signed an agreement with Rome, concerned at Carthage’s expanding empire, not to cross the River Ebro in southern Spain, but Hannibal, now in overall command in Spain, was more ambitious. Study showcased by Morey, William C. (1901), stated that the Carthage was angered that the Numidians had been permitted to encroach upon their country, and in return, Carthage brought together a small a military group to attack Numidia without Roman authorization. Scipio immediately defeated a contingent of 500 Carthaginian cavalry and then had his army boosted by the arrival of Masinissa’s Numidian cavalry. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. Almost inevitably, Mago was unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army was defeated in Cisalpine Gaul in 203 BCE. Second Punic War events First Punic War - Roman victory - Carthage lost control of Sicily to Rome Second Punic War - Roman victory - Carthage lost control of all of it's territory apart from the city itself. Over the course of more than a century the two most powerful nations in the Mediterranean battled for supremacy. Cartwright, M. (2016, May 29). Scipio then made allies of two Numidian princes, Syphax and Masinissa, in preparation for his plan to take the war to Africa. Once again, though, Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources in men, ships, and money, combined with skills on the battlefield and command of the seas, had ensured Rome could replenish losses more easily than Carthage. The 25-year old general sailed from Ostia and quickly made his mark on the war by a shock capture of the main Carthaginian supply base and treasury in Spain, Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena) in 209 BCE. I will firstly provide a brief history of governance in the two societies and then depict the structural similarities before highlighting important differences. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. The influence of the Punic Wars on Western Civilization. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Led by Mago, Hannibal’s brother, the 14,000-strong force suffered from an inability to land closer to Hannibal’s army because of Roman naval dominance and their control of the major ports. The Punic Wars were a defining moment in the expansion of the Roman Republic, with the Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC (Grant, 1960)) playing the part of a corner stone in the bridge to create the powerful Roman Empire. At the same time in Italy, Hannibal was still holding out despite facing armies twice the size of his own force. Fabius knew that, as at Cannae, Hannibal might win direct confrontations, but he could be worn down by blocking his supplies by sea and entrapping him in Italy. Carthage sent an army to Liguria in northern Italy in 205 BCE. In typical fashion, the Carthaginian general used the terrain to his advantage, this time putting his 50,000 troops close to the River Aufidus; he constrained the eight legions of the enemy to do likewise and thus restricted their possibility of manoeuvre and gain advantage from their greater numbers. The strategy of Fabius, although interrupted occasionally by zealous commanders eager for glory in their one year of office as consul, was slowly working and, relentlessly, the Romans backed Hannibal into an ever-smaller pocket so that by 207 BCE he controlled only Bruttium. Prior to that, it was the opportunity Romans was waiting for. And, in the final battle at Zama, Scipio had shown what could be achieved by adapting standard tactics to defeat specific enemies. 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