The Mins were the earliest known civilization in Southeast Asia. Buddha respected and asked everyone individual to respect the other irrespective of their caste, gender or social status. Part 15: Nogi Syndrome, Workaholism and Karoshi However murky the details may be, it is clear that the trade routes that ran from northwestern India to northern China facilitated both the introduction of Buddhism to Central Asia and the maintenance, for many centuries, of a flourishing Buddhist culture there. shaving of the head, which should be considered as a gift from parents. Daoists expanded their ideas about the cosmos and ways to structure their monastic orders. In contrast to the theological exclusivity of Hindu Brahmanism, the Asokan missionary approach featured preaching and carried the principles of the Buddha directly to the common people. It was but a step from there to assigning to that person the power and charisma of the priestly office. Shintoisms were the only religions in Japan until the arrival of Buddhism in the 6th century CE. Learning Objective. People made it their own language across the globe because of its real yet simple conclusions. Mahayana had already passed through the hands of the Chinese who, like the Japanese, practiced ancestor reverence. Buddhist monasteries or viharas, prayer halls, and shrines are known as chaitya grihas were also built. After his enshrinement, the calamities apparently stopped. It’s not just about existing but, living. Later on, Ambedkar also adopted it and welcomed every individual to accept it who didn’t find a peaceful life being a part of the Hindu religion. Buddhists gained a lexicon that made it easier to teach their tradition. Part 4: Parallel Worlds: Folk Religion, Life & Death in Japan I don’t know what Buddhism really is- a religion? Buddhism was established in about 500 BC. ‘Endings’ are continual aspects of life among which death is but one, and one that the importance of which is perhaps exaggerated. Both Buddhism and Daoism benefited from this exchange. Some cities became centers for Buddhist learning, and many beautiful Buddhist temples … The Nara period (710-794) was the age of the first great flowering of Buddhism in Japan. An excellent example is Nalanda, an acclaimed Mahavihara in Bihar. Buddhism is known to have its roots from the iron age of India around the middle first millennium BCE when the Upanishads and the Sramanic traditions were making their way into the Historical Vedic religion. 1. Brill, 1967). cit p.) The idea of offering food to a Buddha indicated the integration of Buddhism with ancestor reverence. Find out more about Buddhism's origins, doctrines, and the distinctive features of its major schools, to understand how Buddhism impacts our world. (5) Why the Chinese should be influenced by alien ways of thinking? Most of the ancient Indian universities like Nalanda,Taxila were products of Buddhism. It was at the time of the Mauryan empire that Buddhism established itself as a religion, under the rule of Asoka who was an ardent follower of its practices. The decisive influence at the early stage was Prince Shotoku (572-621) who promoted Buddhism on the grounds both of his own personal belief and the belief that it was a great bearer of a higher civilization. Mahayana Buddhismwas originally founded during the Kushan Empire and spread to China where various school sects were developed; before spreading farther a… The Buddhist priesthood became institutionalized in a similar manner. The history and culture of each country to which it spread affected its development, and over time, Buddhists exchanged ideas with people of many different faiths to the enrichment of all sides. Over time Buddhism became a popular force in the lives of the Chinese, from the common people to the emperor himself. :) (If you want to know HOW these things impacted China lmk because the question just asked for the impacts :)) They were believed to have special power and became the basis of cults of adoration, the rewards of which were wealth, good fortune, good health and longevity. Sutras were chanted to ensure good harvests or adequate rain. The Power and Influence of Buddhism in Early China and Japan Buddhism has had a profound impact on all of Asia. They were not converted to Buddhism. The economy of Song China became increasingly commercialized while continuing to depend on free peasant and artisanal labor. In short, the many Buddha figures were seen as supporting the work of the eighty million deities, the yao-yorozu-no-kami. Buddhism is divided into many branches. The gradual centralization of government during the seventh century called for the co-operation of the kami and for the creation of an office to take responsibility for the worship of the kami. Buddhism - Buddhism - Central Asia and China: The spread of Buddhism into Central Asia is still not completely understood. Article: The Future of Buddhism in the West By Isa Gucciardi, Ph.D. Editors’ Note: This is a talk presented at the East West Conference between Western academics and Tibetan Buddhist teachers at the Sacred Stream Center on April 21, 2014. These continued so long that they were finally attributed to the angry soul of Sugawara. The idea of mujo, or impermanence, found its way into the cultural mentality of the Japanese people at this time. And to live is beyond everything. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'sociologygroup_com-banner-1','ezslot_8',600,'0','0']));When Mahayana started worshipping the image of Buddha, it influenced Hindus to worship their different gods. As one scholar has said: Undoubtedly the great underlying inspiration of the Nara culture was Buddhism, for in a sense eighth-century Japan developed what might be called a Buddhist “ecclesiastification of culture. In a Chinese text composed around the sixth century we can read some of the questions and answers that the Chinese monks recited to those Japanese who asked about Buddhism. (Durkheim, Emile Elementary Forms of the Religious Life tr. Origins and Developments Figures and Texts Becoming A Buddhist Tibetan and Vajrayana Buddhism Buddhism. p. 30). Some of the members of that community were, like the Buddha himself, wandering ascetics. Part 10: Cross-Cultural Comparisons on Mourning and Object Loss It is beyond doubt that Chinese and Korean influence had been … He became known as the kami of learning and Japanese students still go to pray at many shrines that grew out of the original for good fortune in their entrance examinations. Summary: What is required for Buddhism to have more transformational impact in the Western context? It is intended to convey in a positive sense the idea of transitory nature of life. Part 14: Militarism – Meiji to Showa Buddhism began with a prince called Siddhartha Gautama. Social, political, and economic changes were Buddhism appealed directly to the masses, leading to the growth of a collective Sinhalese cultural consciousness. Buddhavacana “word of the Buddha” include teachings and works of Buddha which are also known as “Sutras”, while other texts being Shashtras and Abhidharma. Unlike in India where multiple religions exist with Hinduism being dominant, these countries have adopted Buddhism as their only religion and it is much respected by everyone and supported by the government too. Part 17: Lingering Images in Popular Culture While these cultural developments were taking place, and the concepts of mujo, imi and others were making their way into Japanese social psychology, many cults were beginning to attract popular followings. How did Buddhism arrive in China? Explain the effects of innovation on the Chinese economy over time. Part 20: The Modern Ritualized Death System, […] Life & Death in Japan Part 5: Kami and Ancestors Part 6: Buddhism and Death in Society Part 7: The Arrival and Acceptance of Buddhism in Japan Part 8: Popular Buddhist Death Cults Part 9: The Death Poem and Buddhism Part 10: Cross-Cultural […], […] Life & Death in Japan Part 5: Kami and Ancestors Part 6: Buddhism and Death in Society Part 7: The Arrival and Acceptance of Buddhism in Japan Part 8: Popular Buddhist Death Cults Part 9: The Death Poem and Buddhism Part 10: Cross-Cultural […], The Arrival and Acceptance of Buddhism in Japan (7/20), Part 1: Death in the Japanese Tradition: An Introduction, Part 2: Buddhism & Burial: Attitudes to Death in Ancient Japan, Part 3: Death and the Dead in Japan’s Literary Classics, Part 4: Parallel Worlds: Folk Religion, Life & Death in Japan, The Death Poem and Buddhism in Japan - THINK.IAFOR.ORG, Militarism and Suicide in Japan: Meiji to Showa (14/20), Japanese Survivor Syndrome, Workaholism and Karoshi (15/20), Japan’s Modern Ritualized Death System (20/20), The Death and Burial of Emperor Showa (19/20), Terrorism, Violence and Tomorrow’s Citizens in Japan (18/20), Lingering Images in Japanese Popular Culture (17/20), Quay with Sand Barges, Vincent van Gogh’s Symbolist Homage to Eugène Delacroix, The Imponderable Bloom: E.M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’ on Isolation, Social Distancing, and Online Lecturing. He came to be called "the Buddha," which means "awakened one," after he experienced a profound realization of the … Just as, in Shinto, there are rites to pacify these unhappy souls, Buddhism invented the chinkon to do the same. Promotion of social equality and social justice helped Buddhism to cross the frontiers of Indian sub-continent and became a world religion. Buddhism is one of the most important religions in the world. Part 6: Buddhism and Death in Society Some Hindus even converted to Buddhists. Buddhism is the most… From then on Shinto faiths and traditions took on Buddhist elements, and later, Confucian ones. Indian Arts and Culture. (4) Why Buddhists believe in rebirth if reverence for ancestors is a sacred duty, since re-incarnation would seem to imply that ancestral spirits do not exist. Buddha Some of these might best be referred to as death cults, and to these we must now turn our attention for a more complete picture of early Buddhism in Japan. This was the period when Brahmanism, better known as Hinduism influenced every mind in the Indian society. Harshvardhan didn’t stay behind in doing this too. Part 5: Kami and Ancestors The mantras exist in Sanskrit which was the original language in which Buddha preached. Under his shadow, women started coming to the forefront and it improved their position in the society. Eventually, in later ages, because Shinto and the shrine priesthood saw death as impure, Buddhism took the province of death as its own. It posed no threat to the social order, and people from all classes were drawn to its emphasis on kindness and charity. Part 19: The Death and Burial of Emperor Showa Part 9: The Death Poem and Buddhism As Fo Guang Shan Buddhists celebrate the tenth anniversary of their Chung Tian Temple in Brisbane, it is appropriate to reflect on the nature and history of Buddhism in Australia as a whole: how Buddhism was brought to this country, and how its diverse schools and branches have developed since arriving h… And in this case, it was just an imitation of the traditional Buddhism. Will AI technology Worsen Inequality in the World of Work? But Mahayana Buddhism makes little use of Sanskrit language. He encouraged the building of many temples that functioned as religious, educational and philanthropic centers and which were served and maintained by groups of ordained monks or nuns. 500), the first philosopher of classical Greek civilization. Hannah Snell: Cross-Dressing Ideology in 18th-Century Naval Culture, The Three Barriers on the Way to International Communication, A Paperless Classroom: Benefits and Challenges, The Power of an Image: The Black Madonna of Częstochowa, The Function of Literature: Revolution, Transformation and Utopia. Explained, Dialectical Materialism and Economic Determinism by Karl Marx, Safai Karamchari Andolan: What you need to know. The next instalment, “Popular Buddhist Death Cults ” will be published next Thursday on May, 5, 2016. The Buddhist concept of mujo was thus integrated into the Shinto idea of natural death as expressed in the writings of the Manyoshu. It was not until he reached Bodh Gaya and sat under the Bodhi tree (Fiscus religiosa) meditating, that he finally discovers that the answers to life and death which he was found outside, actually lay in his inside. Part 8: Popular Buddhist Death Cults Buddhism pleads for the protection of catties. It has contributed a lot in each sphere of humanity and life. Buddhism appealed to people of lower castes because it emphasized individuals’ path to enlightenment and salvation, which could be attained in this life. This rather neglected text, while not providing very convincing answers, did offer a basis for negotiation between traditional Chinese culture and Buddhism. He attained enlightenment through an insight into his learnings of Karma and laid down the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. At the same time, we can see that a lot of pieces of Buddhism, maybe most represent pieces of Buddhism, were taken by the popular culture. The number eight in Chinese style simply implies a large size or number, hence 80 million implies a myriad. However, they found performing their rituals tiresome which is why some Hindus started praying through meditation. The means was by the correct rituals of avoidance or by the keeping clear of certain places, situations or circumstances. The remaining questions concern specific aspects of Buddhism and their justification. The significance Buddha's teachings had was evident in how many people take Buddhism as their primary religion. The basic sociological unit was co-extensive with the theological community, a perfect demonstration of the theory of Durkheim. By ensuring that the Buddha’s teachings were transmitted across millennia, the religion helped develop and spread printing techniques around the world – as a new exhibition reveals. In the old Shinto cults, organization was loose and was based on community relations. Part 12: Bushido: The Way of Death Buddhism seems originally to have been understood and assimilated as the cultic belief of certain clans. The Taika and Taiho periods (645-702) were marked by an increase in state-sponsored temples (kokubunji) and a corresponding decline in clan temples, marking the transition of Buddhism’s development from clan to state control. As shown in the picture, Buddha's gesture was to touch the ground showing his connection with all of earth. Part 2: Buddhism & Burial: Attitudes to Death in Ancient Japan ‘No one steps into the same river twice’ is the philosophical proposition which expresses the concept of mujo, an idea propounded by both Buddhists and Western philosophers including Heraclitus (c. b.c.e. China and Japan were both strongly influenced by the influx of Buddhism. Hope this helps! Gradually the privileges and prerogatives of the Shinto priesthood came to be recognized and by the beginning of the eighth century a department of Shinto affairs had been established alongside the Council of State. Or a preaching! Buddhism: the political impact In this essay we will talk about the relevance of Buddhism and particularly the political impact of this religion, the main objective of this descriptive essay will be to present an small view to Buddhism and how this religion was able to influence politics in many aspects. (Kitagawa, Joseph, Religion in Japanese History op. After his unhappy death in exile in 903, the Great Audience Hall of the Imperial Palace in Kyoto was struck by lightning. Needless to say, the Buddhism that made its presence felt in Japan was that of the Mahayana (The Great Vehicle) as distinct from the Hinayana (The Lesser Vehicle) typified by the Buddhism of Southeast Asia. While Hinduism taught one to worship gods and deities; practice and perform religious rituals, Buddhism preached people to worship themselves and to discover one’s true best form which would attain them salvation. He taught that the way to eliminate suffering began with understanding the true nature of the world. Part 11: Japanese Buddhist and Christian Images of Death: Comparisons and Contrasts (Kamstra, S. Syncretism or Encounter (Leiden: E.J. The Hindus were originally meat eaters but due to the influence of Buddhism became vegetarian. From its inception in Japan, association with the basic sociological unit cannot be overstressed as the key to its acceptance. The land of Kalinga also changed from Chandasoka to Dharmasoka. Part 13: Confucianism, Neo-Confucianism and the Neo-Samurai Buddhism is a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who was born in the fifth century B.C. In the Shinto myths of the kami, unhappy kami worked mischief on the living. Hinduism and Buddhism are the identities and cultural assets of Nepal. While this idea was clearly seen in courtly literature, it seems also to have been widely reflected in popular thought at the same time. People would attend and listen to the monks which brought people of different regions and religions together which became a unifying factor. eval(ez_write_tag([[320,50],'sociologygroup_com-box-4','ezslot_2',178,'0','0']));Buddha strongly refused to follow the caste system and it’s cruelties and inequality towards people established by the Hindus. Worship was to be paid and offerings of food made at these altars.’ (Nakamura op. This was followed by a spate of fires that broke out in different parts of Kyoto. Historical Developments. William Theodore de Bary, New York: Random House, 1972, pp .130 ff). Other canonical texts like Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka, and Abhidhamma Pitaka were also written in Pali language. The Chinese had already achieved this in their Buddhist practices. (3) Why Buddhists do not marry, since marriage and presenting one’s father with a grandson is a sacred duty. He even asked his own son Mahendra and daughter Sanghmitra to spread its teachings to Srilanka. Buddhism helped people believe in something at a time of need where their own religion was denying them of being important. Chinese Buddhism is one of the oldest forms of Buddhism in history and China’s oldest foreign religion. Till today monks like Dalai Lama preach the religion throughout the world. Part 16: Suicide in Contemporary Japan cit. Such temples were referred to as uji-dera or clan temples. The statues and paintings of the principal Buddhist cultic figures such as, amongst others, Shaka (Sakyamuni), Amida (Amitbha) and Miroku (Maitreya) were widely circulated. Southeast Asian countries with a Theravāda Buddhist majority are Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. But while Buddhism merely articulated, with some sophistication of terminology, ideas implicit in the ancient Japanese view of death, it also brought the concept into popular thought in a new way. But what I know, is that it’s the art of living life. Chinese Buddhists believe in a combination of Taoism and Mahayana Buddhism, the latter of which teaches that enlightenment can be achieved in a single lifetime. The earliest Buddhist text ‘Suttanipata’ boosted the cattle wealth as it declares the catties to be the givers of food, beauty and happiness. The Kitano Tenmangu was erected in 986 and Sugawara became known as Tenjin (heavenly kami). Buddhism also received state support from Emperor Ashoka, who converted to Buddhism in 260 BCE. It was the era of the erection in Nara modeled on a Chinese style capital city and the great temple of the Horyu-ji. Turning to religion, we may venture that Buddhis… But what were these purposes? It was Asoka who took the initiative to spread brotherhood universally through the genesis of. So Buddha shunned his materialistic life giving up everything and set out on a quest in search of freedom from these sufferings. The violent deaths from natural as well as unnatural causes of numerous politicians took place. The aim of the Japanese authorities who formally acknowledged and sponsored Buddhism appears to have been primarily the preservation of the State rather than the salvation of the people. The Shinto idea of avoidance probably integrated with the Taoistic idea of divination as well as native shamanism and eventually grew into Buddhism’s fortune-telling role and the semi-magical rituals by which death might be eluded. It’s finding the purpose in your life. Converts to Buddhism Chinkon rites were held, but the calamities continued. Buddhism - Buddhism - Historical development: The Buddha was a charismatic leader who founded a distinctive religious community based on his unique teachings. Buddhism originated in India but slowly spread to other countries including China, Srilanka, Bhutan, Japan, Tibet, Korea etc. It takes up eight points, the most important of which are: (1) Why Buddhism is not mentioned in the Confucian classics. Theravada Buddhism uses Pali as it’s the main language with its scriptures written and existing in the same language and are expected to be read in this original language. Historically, Mahāyāna Buddhism had a prominent position in this region, but in modern times most countries follow the Theravāda tradition. He believed in equal rights for the widows and nuns and was especially humble towards the old. Part 7: The Arrival and Acceptance of Buddhism in Japan Whilst the Emperor (or chieftain) held such responsibility, in practice it was frequently delegated to a carefully chosen person. In the field of education Buddhism tried to make education practical, action oriented and geared towards social welfare. It helped that blend of Buddhism and Confucianism that the Japanese of the Nara period found sufficiently persuasive for their purposes and thus made an indirect contribution to the Japanese acceptance of Buddhism. While such isolated instances of human souls being enshrined did occur, they happened rarely and the enshrinement of the souls of deceased persons did not become a formally accepted practice until the modern period when it was done primarily for political ends to generate a state ideology. So it means that even monastery Buddhism today, is very flexible, and very peaceful by its nature. eval(ez_write_tag([[320,50],'sociologygroup_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_6',197,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[320,50],'sociologygroup_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_7',197,'0','1']));Buddhist carvings of Ajanta and Ellora caves were also influenced by Buddha. What form did Japanese sponsorship take? The chronology in the Nihonshoki suggests that Buddhism was formally received in Japan around 552 c.e., but rather than being the date of Buddhism’s arrival in Japan, the year 552 is probably the date of the official acknowledgement of Buddhism by the Japanese court. Indeed, the Chinese felt initial anxieties about Buddhism similar to those felt by the Japanese two hundred years later. J Swain, Glencoe: Free Press, 1961, pp.52 ff). Indeed, the Buddha and the kami became closely identified. Buddhism is known to have its roots from the iron age of India around the middle first millennium BCE when the Upanishads and the Sramanic traditions were making their way into the Historical Vedic religion. What were the cultural impacts of the arrival of Buddhism? He was very compassionate towards all including women, children or even animals. The Arrival of Buddhism in Japan. (The Buddhist Ttadition in India, China and Japa ed. They converted Buddhism to their own tribalism.” (Nakamura Hajime Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples Honolulu: East West Center Press.). During the sixth to eighth centuries, the privileged priestly classes gradually emerged. Historical Background Buddhism originated in India with the life of the historical Buddha between the fifth and sixth centuries BC (Saunders 19). This is Part 7 of Professor Stuart D. B. Picken’s serialised monograph, “Death in the Japanese Tradition: A Study in Cultural Evolution and Transformation”, to be published every Thursday. Part 3: Death and the Dead in Japan’s Literary Classics The example usually quoted in relation to its application in Japanese thought is that of the Genji Monogatari, a text which is so imbued with the idea of mujo that everything planned is considered as valid or standing for a short time only. Buddhism taught people to cultivate simple values like truth, nonviolence, brotherhood, etc. Gautama Buddha (Siddhartha) was extremely moved to see all the adversities and innate sufferings of life that every living being had to face, and that these sufferings would follow one in his every birth due to reincarnation. I shall confine my remarks here therefore to some observations on ideas that seeped into popular Japanese thinking during the succeeding period and which represent at least part of the integration of Buddhism with Shinto in the mind of the average Japanese. Sugawara was a statesman who was disgraced and exiled by the jealous leaders of the Fujiwara family. It attracted Kushan king Kanishka to embrace Buddhism for peace and consolation being regretful of his past deeds. Buddhism in Southeast Asia includes a variety of traditions of Buddhism including two main traditions: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Theravāda Buddhism. Many stupas and pillars were constructed out of a rock, like the Sanchi Stupa in Sanchi which is a Buddhist complex. The expansion of Buddhism throughout most of Asia was peaceful, and occurred in several ways. Another interesting feature of Heian cluture was the ceremony of chinkon, special Buddhist masses for the pacification of unhappy souls. In many cases nationalism has played a significant role in politics; this slippery concept may be defined as a sometimes chauvinistic devotion to an ethnic, religious, or political community, with a concomitant impetus to advance its interests and traditions, often at the expense of other communities. Nakamura Hajime has argued that Buddhism was used: “… as a means and an instrument to realize a certain socio-political end. It declared that caste or varna should not come into the way of person's seeking to obtain 'Nirvana'. Sociology Group: Sociology and Other Social Sciences Blog, Learn Sociology and Other Social Sciences. Part 18: Terrorism, Violent and Tomorrow’s Citizens He instructed his monks to go forth in the world and expound his teachings. “They were believed to have special power and became the basis of cults of adoration, the rewards of which were wealth, good fortune, good health and longevity.”. From its arrival in 552AD to the present, Buddhism has been a major factor in the lives of the Japanese people. The Buddha was, after all, called the “Enlightened One“. Details of their doctrines and differences as well as of their political or theological influences have been well documented by scholars such as Eliot, Anesaki, Reischauer, Nakamura, Kitagawa, Takakusu and Nanjo. It is here that the famous case of Sugawara Michizane offers an instance of a deceased human soul becoming a kami. This was also its only alternative after state funding had been reduced or ended. The uji-no-kami (clan chieftain) was also responsible for religious functions related to the worship of the clan kami. Thereafter, week after week of rainstorms, thunder and lightning plagued the city. The inner machinations of the Imperial court itself, and the close relationship between the Soga and Imperial clans, with the Soga clan’s promotion of Buddhism, need not detain us here. That period saw the most complete politicization of not only death but also of the dead that has ever been seen anywhere, and which capitalized on all the traditions we are in the process of surveying. Buddhism is a religion that was founded by Siddhartha Gautama (“The Buddha”) more than 2,500 years ago in India. Institutional control of religion is a feature of the Nara period. One idea which had gained widespread popularity by the Heian age (794-1185) was the notion that death might be somehow avoided or cheated, outwitted or forestalled. Buddhism promoted education and inspired literature, art, architecture and changes in Indian society. It rejected ritualism and the dominance of priests and encouraged equality. Thus Buddhism exercised a tremendous influence on India culture. This article will define politics as the science or art of government and the management of state affairs, with the state in turn defined as an organized political community. Professor D. B. Picken looks at the introduction of Buddhism into Japan, how it was received and how it influenced and continues to influence the cultural mentality of the Japanese people in Part 7 of his “Death in the Japanese Tradition” series. Starting in India, Buddhism’s reach has extended across the world. Humanity should be the greatest of all only then will we be able to build up an equal and healthy society. Filed Under: Essays, Indian Sociology, religion, Chandra Bhan Prasad: Biography, Contributions and Books, 10 Famous Human Rights Activists and Contributions, What is Ecological Marxism (Eco-Marxism)? In 685 for example, orders were issued and sent to all the provinces that ‘in every house, a Buddhist altar should be established, and an image of Buddha with Buddhist scriptures be placed there. During the Maurya empire, the Indian culture and way of life were deeply influenced by Buddhism. The original Pali term is anicca and the Sanskrit rendering of this is anitya. Various schools of Buddhism entered Japan during the Nara period, particularly the early philosophical ones such as Jojitsu-shu, Hosso-shu, Kusha-shu and Kegon-shu, the latter being the most completely Mahayana. Asoka influenced rock art and architecture. The Buddhist stress on evanescence has had a major influence on the literature of the Heian period and later. Buddhism was intellectually appealing to the educated, and rulers welcomed it as a tool to unite Chinese and non-Chinese citizens. So in 942, (thirty-nine years after his death) an oracle decreed that a jinja be built in which he would be enshrined. 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